The rad is a unit of absorbed radiation dose, defined as 1 rad = 0.01 Gy = 0.01 J/kg. It was originally defined in CGS units in 1953 as the dose causing 100 ergs of energy to be absorbed by one gram of matter. The material absorbing the radiation can be human tissue or silicon microchips or any other medium (for example, air, water, lead shielding, etc.).
It has been replaced by the gray (Gy) in SI derived units but is still used in the United States, though “strongly discouraged” in chapter 5.2 of style guide for U.S. National Institute of Standards and Technology authors. A related unit, the roentgen, is used to quantify the radiation exposure. The F-factor can be used to convert between rad and roentgens.
The attempted assassination of Bob Marley occurred in Jamaica on December 3, 1976, when seven armed men raided the house of reggae musician Bob Marley two days before he was to stage a concert in an attempt to quell recent violence. Politicians from across the political spectrum hoped to capitalize on Marley’s support. While Marley remained neutral, many viewed him as tacitly supporting the prime minister Michael Manley and his democratic socialist People’s National Party. Marley and three others were shot, but all survived. The gunmen were caught, tried, and executed.
After the shooting, the American embassy sent a cable titled “Reggae Star Shot: Motive probably political”. In the cable, Ambassador Gerard wrote:
“Some see the incident as an attempt by JLP gunmen to halt the concert, which would feature the “politically progressive” music of Marley and other reggae stars. Others see it as a deep-laid plot to create a progressive, youthful Jamaican martyr to the benefit of the PNP. Those holding the latter view note that the four persons shot, three of them including Marley, only suffered minor wounds.”
Timothy White, the author of Catch a Fire, claimed that information he received from JLP and PNP officials as well as US law enforcement officials led him to believe that Carl Byah “Mitchell”, a JLP gunman, was contracted by the CIA to organize the Marley shooting and that Lester Coke, aka Jim Brown, led the charge on Hope Road.
Don Taylor, Marley’s manager, claimed that both he and Marley were present at court in which the gunmen who shot Marley were tried and executed. According to Taylor, before one of the shooters was killed, he claimed the job was done for the CIA in exchange for cocaine and guns.
The Smile Jamaica Concert, headlined by Bob Marley & The Wailers, was held on December 5 at National Heroes Park, Kingston, Jamaica.
A dose of under 100 rad will typically produce no immediate symptoms other than blood changes. A dose of 100 to 200 rad delivered to the entire body in less than a day may cause acute radiation syndrome (ARS), but is usually not fatal. Doses of 200 to 1,000 rad delivered in a few hours will cause serious illness with poor outlook at the upper end of the range.
Whole body doses of more than 1,000 rad are almost invariably fatal. Therapeutic doses of radiation therapy are often given and tolerated well even at higher doses to treat discrete, well-defined anatomical structures. The same dose given over a longer period of time is less likely to cause ARS. Dose thresholds are about 50% higher for dose rates of 20 rad/h, and even higher for lower dose rates.
Eight months after Bradley Nowell’s (the lead singer of Sublime) death, No Doubt headlined a “cautionary” benefit concert in honor of his memory. Nowell’s widow wanted to make it clear that the goal of the concert was not to glamorize his death, but rather to promote drug awareness and prevention among fans. Proceeds from the concert were given to a non-profit offering support for musicians struggling with drug addiction, as well as a scholarship fund for Nowell’s son, Jakob.
Nowell married Troy Dendekker on May 18, 1996. Seven days later, on the morning of May 25, Sublime was set to begin a five-day tour through Northern California, followed by a European and East Coast tour. However, while the band was staying at the Ocean View Motel in San Francisco (Seascape Inn now), drummer Bud Gaugh awoke to find Nowell lying on the floor next to his bed. His dalmatian, Lou Dog, was curled up on the bed whimpering. Nowell had tried awakening his fellow bandmates to go to the beach with him that morning, but they were too hung-over and tired to get out of bed.
Silicon-based microelectronics break down under exposure to radiation. Radiation-hardened components designed for military or nuclear applications can survive up to 100 Mrad (1 MGy). Metals creep, harden, and become brittle under the effect of radiation.
The International Committee for Weights and Measures (CIPM) has not accepted the use of the rad. From 1977 to 1998, the US NIST’s translations of the SI brochure stated that the CIPM had temporarily accepted the use of the rad (and other radiology units) with SI units since 1969. However, the only related CIPM decisions shown in the appendix are with regards to the curie in 1964 and the radian (symbol: rad) in 1960. The NIST brochures redefined the rad as 0.01 Gy. The CIPM’s current SI brochure excludes the rad from the tables of non-SI units accepted for use with the SI. The US NIST clarified in 1998 that it was providing its own interpretations of the SI system, whereby it accepted the rad for use in the US with the SI, while recognizing that the CIPM did not. NIST recommends defining the rad in relation to SI units in every document where this unit is used. Nevertheless, use of the rad remains widespread in the US, where it is still an industry standard. Although the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission still permits the use of the units curie, rad, and rem alongside SI units, the European Union required that its use for “public health … purposes” be phased out by 31 December 1985.
The following table shows radiation quantities in SI and non-SI units:
|Activity (A)||becquerel||Bq||s−1||1974||SI unit|
|curie||Ci||3.7 × 1010 s−1||1953||3.7×1010 Bq|
|rutherford||Rd||106 s−1||1946||1,000,000 Bq|
|Exposure (X)||coulomb per kilogram||C/kg||C⋅kg−1 of air||1974||SI unit|
|röntgen||R||esu / 0.001293 g of air||1928||2.58 × 10−4 C/kg|
|Absorbed dose (D)||gray||Gy||J⋅kg−1||1974||SI unit|
|erg per gram||erg/g||erg⋅g−1||1950||1.0 × 10−4 Gy|
|rad||rad||100 erg⋅g−1||1953||0.010 Gy|
|Equivalent dose (H)||sievert||Sv||J⋅kg−1 × WR||1977||SI unit|
|röntgen equivalent man||rem||100 erg⋅g−1 x WR||1971||0.010 Sv|
|Effective dose (E)||sievert||Sv||J⋅kg−1 × WR × WT||1977||SI unit|
|röntgen equivalent man||rem||100 erg⋅g−1 × WR × WT||1971||0.010 Sv|
Initially, Gaugh assumed that Nowell was too intoxicated to get into bed. However, he noticed a yellow film around his mouth, and it became apparent that he had overdosed on heroin. Gaugh called for paramedics, but Nowell had died several hours earlier and was pronounced dead at the scene. Nowell was cremated and his ashes were spread over his favorite surfing spot in Surfside, California. A headstone was placed at Westminster Memorial in Westminster, California, in his memory.
Eight months after Nowell’s death, No Doubt headlined a “cautionary” benefit concert in honor of his memory. Nowell’s widow wanted to make it clear that the goal of the concert was not to glamorize his death, but rather to promote drug awareness and prevention among fans. Proceeds from the concert were given to a non-profit offering support for musicians struggling with drug addiction, as well as a scholarship fund for Nowell’s son, Jakob.
On January 11, 1997, a Los Angeles Times article titled “Cautionary Concert in Rocker’s Memory”, writer Jerry Crowe quoted No Doubt bassist Tony Kanal as saying, “Obviously, it’s going to be very emotional because you’re there playing a show to commemorate a good friend who died and died for very wrong reasons. But you’re also there to change things for the future and prevent stuff like that from ever happening again. A lot of times we hear about musicians using drugs and it’s so blasé and clichéd. You just kind of say, ‘Oh, he’ll be fine. Somebody will take care of him.’ But that’s not true. It’s important for every single one of us to stand up and say, ‘Enough of this shit.’ It’s time to make a difference”.
Jason Westfall, one of Sublime’s managers, was quoted as saying the surviving members of Sublime had no interest in continuing to perform and record under the “Sublime” name: “Just like Nirvana, Sublime died when Brad died.” Sublime played their last show at the Phoenix Theater in Petaluma, California. In late 2010 and early 2011, the remaining band members, along with Rome Ramirez, began touring under the name Sublime with Rome.
It is well established that the United States Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) has been involved in drug trafficking. Books and investigations on the subject include works by the historian Alfred McCoy, professor and diplomat Peter Dale Scott, journalists Gary Webb and Alexander Cockburn, and writer Larry Collins. These claims have led to investigations by the United States government, including hearings and reports by the United States House of Representatives, Senate, Department of Justice, and the CIA’s Office of the Inspector General.